Two Over One (2/1) Game Forcing is a natural, 5-card major bidding system. When the auction begins 1D/H/S, a simple 2-level response in a new suit is forcing to game. This page provides articles, convention writeups, and resources to help learn the system.


  • What Is 2/1?
    A summary of 2/1, along with some benefits and drawbacks.
  • When Is the 2/1 Game-Force "Off"?
    Exceptions to the "game-forcing" rule. This includes 2/1 responses in competition and other possible agreements per experts like Mike Lawrence and Max Hardy.

Responder's First Bid

Opener's Second Bid

Advanced Topics

  • Improving 2/1 Auctions: Part 1 by Fred Gitelman
    The way that most partnerships play 2/1 creates other problems that are not inherent to the system. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of these and to suggest some solutions.

  • Improving 2/1 Auctions: Part 2 by Fred Gitelman
    A method for slam exploration at the 4-level after a partnership has already committed to a major-suit game.

  • Improving 2/1 Auctions: Part 3 by Fred Gitelman
    An alternative approach to Jacoby 2NT, as well as improvements to the Forcing 1NT in the 2/1 bidding system.

  • Serious 3NT by Marc Smith
    A way to discover extra values (or the lack of them) below game when playing the 2/1 bidding system.

Additional Resources

  • 2-Over-1 Partnership Checklist by Karen Walker (PDF).
    This a very thorough list of topics for partnership discussion. However, it does require familiarity with 2/1 and the implications of each treatment.

  • 2/1 System Notes (383 pages, PDF) by Eric Kokish and Beverly Kraft
    A 2/1 game-forcing system by two longtime Canadian experts and teachacoers. Presented as a modified Kaplan-Sheinwold system, it features 5-card majors and frisky 11-14 1NT. A 2/1 response by an unpassed hand is always game-forcing.
  • Pavlicek System by Richard Pavlicek
    An "almost-always" 2/1 game-forcing system with 5-card majors and a 15-17 1NT by American expert Richard Pavlicek. A 2/1 response is game-forcing unless responder rebids his suit. Also of interest is the wide-ranging 6-14 1NT forcing response to 1/.
  • The Two-Over-One Game Force System (627 pages, PDF) by Neil H. Timm
    This 6th edition is a massive treatise on 2/1. It describes intrinsic 2/1 methods as well as optional gadgets. Neil also touches on topics like declarer play, defensive carding, and competitive bidding against Precision opponents.

  • Bridge World Standard by The Bridge World
    A natural 2/1 system devised over the years by The Bridge World. It employs 5-card majors, 15-17 1NT, and a strong 2 opening. BWS is also the de facto system for The Bridge World's "Master Solver Club" bidding contests.

See also

  • Bridge Bidding Principles
    Bidding principles and hand evaluation rules including basic point count, The Law of Total Tricks, Losing Trick Count, and more.

  • SAYC
    A Standard American bidding system that was originally devised by the ACBL.