For example, assume that South plays in hearts in this 6-card ending, and West is on lead:
If West leads a spade, then the defense collects three spade tricks. However, if West leads a diamond, then South benefits from a ruff and sluff. The diamond is ruffed in one hand, and a spade sluffed from the other. South consequently loses only two spades.
A ruff and sluff can happen by:
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